What is DNA testing? The DNA test is basically the reading of a person’s genes. Know what their structure is, on which chromosomes they are located, whether they are modified or damaged. This testing is also called genetic mapping. If you want to do this test, you can contact various online DNA testing services such as Hot5.
How is the DNA test done?
It is necessary to collect samples of some body fluid which can be blood, saliva, nails, hair strands or sperm. Using sophisticated laboratory techniques, the DNA of the samples is isolated and then the mapping is done, which is done by equipment called “DNA sequencers“.
The first sequenators took months to do the genetic mapping and the cost was thousands of dollars. But things are changing in this area. The newest DNA sequencer of the moment, the NGS (Next Generation Sequencing), is able to map the human genome of dozens of people at once, with an absolutely accurate result. The delivery time of the result is less and less: certain DNA readings by NGS technology can be performed in less than 24 hours.
In paternity tests, the test is performed with DNA samples from the child, the mother and the alleged father. It is also possible to perform the paternity test on the still pregnant woman in two ways: noninvasive tests and invasive tests. Already the invasive test can get more details about the baby, checking for hereditary and genetic diseases that he may have.
How long does it take to get the result out?
It all depends on what is being analyzed in the DNA test. Sequencing of all DNA, such as done in paternity tests, can take up to 2 weeks. Tests that look for specific DNA changes may take up to less than 24 hours.
Care before DNA testing
No special preparation is required prior to sample collection for DNA testing. In the case of pregnant women, it must be a pregnancy of at least 10 weeks (in the case of the non-invasive test) for the result to be accurate. The collected material must be packed in an appropriate kit that the laboratory offers for this purpose. The sample should be stored at room temperature and sent to the laboratory with a record filled with the patient’s data and the respective informed consent form.
Factors that alter the DNA test result
Because a person’s DNA is unique, it can’t be altered by drugs, alcohol, drugs, food, age, or lifestyle, not even by surgical procedures. However, if the patient has already had a blood transfusion, this should be reported to the laboratory.
Possible DNA test results
Normally a DNA test report will show which genes and chromosomes have been studied and the geneticist’s analysis of them. The results are presented in clear and simple reports. In examinations to define paternity the result is always comparative. Half of the baby’s DNA comes from the mother and the other half from the biological father. After specifying the DNA’s of the father and the mother, a comparison is made with the baby’s DNA.
It is necessary first to try to exclude paternity with the information obtained in the laboratory, after the characterisation of several regions of the DNA. When four or more discrepancies are verified, the paternity hypothesis is excluded because it is impossible.
Battling Anxiety? Here Are Some Expert-Approved Tips To Overcome It
Describing anxiety is extremely difficult as everyone may suffer from it in a different way. It is normal for us to feel anxious from time to time, but when anxiety starts to affect our daily life, then we must deal with it as soon as possible. Unfortunately, women are twice as likely as men to suffer from an anxiety disorder. There are several ways to deal with it, but keep in mind that what worked for others may not work for you. We gathered some tips from the experts on how to overcome anxiety.
Exercising seems exhausting and people think it requires a high level of dedication to have any effect. However, for people suffering from anxiety or depression, exercising has been proven to reduce their symptoms. All it takes to have an effect is 2.5 hours of regular exercising per week or 1.5 hours of high-intensity workouts per week. You don’t need to hit the gym, all you need to do is go jogging, take a walk, dance, or do any other physical activity you like for 30 mins 3-5 times a week.
When someone has an anxiety disorder, the problem can be genetic, and they will need medications to overcome it. However, you should consult with your doctor as some drugs may have undesirable side effects on your body. Some of the medications used to reduce anxiety include beta-blockers, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants.
After legalizing marijuana in several states, many people started discovering its benefits for physical and mental health. The preliminary studies conducted on CBD, a compound in weed, have shown promising results for its effect on reducing anxiety symptoms. If you are not into smoking weed, you can buy pure CBD oil or some edible CBD products which have the same effect. The CBD compound doesn’t give the high effect as that effect comes from the THC compound in weed. However, make sure that you purchase CBD products from a reputable company or store to get high-quality products.
There are several types of therapy that can help reduce or control anxiety and the sessions can be done in a group or individually. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) aims to identify and understand the behavioural and thinking patterns of an individual and change them gradually to reduce their anxiety. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) focuses on overcoming anxiety by deploying strategies such as mindfulness and acceptance.
Sometimes all we need to reduce anxiety is to have a good night’s sleep. Sleeping is one of the coping strategies used to battle anxiety. You may try relaxation techniques such as yoga, deep breathing, belly breathing, massage, and meditation to get rid of anxious thoughts. Other types of coping strategies include having a healthy diet, having emotional support from trusted people, setting achievable goals, and many more.
Anxiety can turn someone’s life into hell if it isn’t controlled. Trying these tips may help to prevent negative thoughts and relieve anxiety considerably. However, if you tried one way and it didn’t work with you, don’t give up as there are several other methods that may have a positive effect on you.
Health benefits of drinking enough water
About 60% of our bodies are made of water. But, still, you-re required to drink enough water every day. Why? Because water is responsible for several functions including, regulating your body temperature, preventing dehydration, facilitates the excretion of wastes from your body, and enables your brain function.
Of course, there are more health benefits of water to your life. But before that:
How much water should you take per day?
Water is an essential element of your life. In fact, almost every function of your body needs or uses water, from your muscles and joints movements to the brain and tissue cushioning. So, you’re either losing water while breathing, through urine, perspiration, or through general body movements.
Therefore, if you need your body to function well, you must ensure you replenish the amount of water loses or used. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), men should take up to 3.7 litres (125 ounces). In comparison, women should consume about 2.7 litres (91 ounces). But of course, you can take more or less than the indicated amounts depending on different factors.
What determines the amount of water you take?
The amount of water and other fluids you take per day significantly depend on:
Exercise– when you participate in specific activities, you’ll have to drink a lot of water. For instance, during exercising, your body removes wastes through sweats. And to cover or replace the amount of water lost. So, it’s essential to take more water before, during, and after exercising or workout.
Whether or environment– humid or hot environment would make you sweat and in the process lose water. Also, there is a high chance of dehydration at high altitudes. So it would help if you consumed a lot of water during the hot conditions or summer.
Your overall health– studies have confirmed that your body loses a lot of fluid or water while you’re sick. For instance, vomiting and diarrhea increase your chances of water loss or if you have conditions like urinary tract stones and bladder infections, among others.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding– Suppose you are asking why water requirement increases during pregnancy or when lactating. In that case, here is what you need to know: during pregnancy, the water in your body is used to create of produce amniotic fluid.
Again, physical pregnancy changes or symptoms like vomiting and nausea increase the demand for more water. Also, you experience higher glomerular filtration and blood volume while you lose more water through respiration and sweating. All these demands that you stay hydrated, which calls for you to take more water or foods containing water.
On the other hand, breast milk contains 90% of water. Meaning while you breastfeed your little one, you lose a lot of water. So, you should take more water to replace the ones lost through the milk.
Importance of drinking enough water
Regulate body temperature
Your body loses a lot of water through urination and sweat, especially during hot weather or when you engage in physical activities. Such factors would cause your body temperature to rise. However, drinking more water ensures you manage your temperature while preventing dehydration.
Maximize your physical performances
Studies have confirmed that dehydration can reduce your level of exercise, lowering your physiological and sport capabilities like strength/power and endurance. And you’ll probably take less time exercising as compared to when you take more water.
Treats and prevents headaches
Headache is a common sign of dehydration. And since taking adequate water has been proved to reduce dehydration, it thus means that you chance of experiencing migraines and frequent headaches if you consume more water.
Aids digestion process
First, water helps in forming mucus and saliva, which help break down and digest different foods. Also, they help moisten food, thus reduce the friction for easy swallowing.
Experts have also confirmed that drinking more water helps get the food out of your body. In other words, it facilitates the excretion of waste in the form of feces and urine. Even better, water ensures a clean mouth and can also prevent and reduce tooth decay.
Promote weight loss
Drinking more water would increase satiety and boost your metabolic rate, thus increasing the number of calories in your body. This would, in turn, help you lose weight.
Also enough water:
- Helps prevent constipation
- Transport different nutrients throughout your body
- It helps fight off diseases like kidney stones, urinary tract infection, and hypertension
So, what can you do to take more water?
Tips to help you drink more water
Since your body is entirely dependent on water, you should:
- Have reusable water bottles so that you can refill them whenever you feel thirsty
- You can as well serve water during every meal
- Consider choosing water over other drinks like soda
- Serve or eat more foods: fruits and vegetables that contain more water like watermelon, cabbage, and lettuce, among others.
Water is a significant factor in your health. It would help if you had it for your physical performance, brain function and reduce dehydration, fever, and headaches. Also, you need water to facilitate your digestion, relieve constipation, and help flush out wastes, among other crucial benefits.
The Importance of LMFT Supervisors in Our Society
The job of an LMFT supervisor or licensed marriage and family therapist is to provide care for interpersonal and relational problems within marriages, families, and couples. Therefore, therapists play an essential role in our society to help their clients to realize and understand the reason for the bad mental state and provide a way to change their problem-creating habits and attitudes. There can occur several issues within the families and couples such as addiction, infidelity, and many other problems, and an LMFT supervisor works with people who are having problems in their relationships. If you want to become an LMFT supervisor and serve people in your society, you should attend an LMFT supervisor training from a well-established institution.
Licensed marriage and family therapists are essential parts of our society as they assist to deal with relationship problems of family members and couples. Most LMFTs are private practitioners and try to understand the emotions and experiences that cause problems for their clients through communicating regularly.
An LMFT supervisor can deal with individuals or multiple related parties, however, the supervisor always takes a one-on-one basis communication method whether they are working with groups in the same room or talking to an individual about his family or couple-related issues. In order to provide recommendations, the LMFT supervisor always focuses on couple or family dynamics, even if he or she is guiding an individual. In the case of family issues such as addiction or abuse, the LMFT supervisor tries to work in association with social workers.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy:
LMFT supervisors often focus on providing cognitive-behavioral supervision to their clients. This goal-oriented approach helps the clients to understand how their actions are being affected by their thoughts, beliefs, and feelings. Therefore, the supervisors work for the recognition of destructive patterns and guides to change them.
Cognitive-behavioral supervisors understand the theoretical orientation and try to offer techniques for the betterment of the clients. This supervision approach involves the observation of the behaviors and cognitions of the clients. This type of supervisor also gives homework to their clients.
The Abilities of an LMFT Supervisor:
An LMFT supervisor needs to have several abilities in order to treat his or her clients and to bring positive changes in their lives.
- i) Empathize: An LMFT supervisor should be able to understand the feelings of his or her clients.
- ii) Communicate: Communication is essential to convey the messages effectively and to know the causes that harm the client’s mental condition.
iii) Listen: An LMFT supervisor should let his or her clients say about their problems and listen properly to recognize the issues.
- iv) Analyze: In order to understand the real cause, the supervisors need to analyze the issues and the environment from where the client belongs to.
- v) Build Trust: Building trust is the most essential thing because the clients can rely on a supervisor if they trust the supervisor.
- vi) Problem Solve: Above all, an LMFT supervisor needs to have problem-solving abilities in order to bring changes and to guide the behaviors of the clients.